jacqueline howard
Preventable risk factors to limit cancer: Smoking, alcohol, high body mass index
01:16 - Source: CNN
CNN  — 

The percentage of adults who smoked cigarettes in the United States fell to a historic low last year, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found. However, e-cigarettes are becoming even more popular.

About 11% of adults told the CDC last year that they were current cigarette smokers, according to the latest preliminary data from the National Health Interview Survey, a biannual survey that provides general information about health-related topics. The survey includes responses from 27,000 people age 18 and older. In 2020 and 2021, about 12.5% of adults said they smoked cigarettes.

This is a significant drop from when surveys like these started. Surveys of Americans in the 1940s found that about half of all adults said they smoked cigarettes. Rates began to decline in the 1960s, and more recently, in 2016, 15.5% of adults said they smoked cigarettes.

Recent studies have shown some groups are still at higher risk. While the latest CDC survey doesn’t capture this level of detail, cigarette smoking rates among some communities – including Native Americans, Alaska Natives and members of the LGBTQ community remain “alarmingly high” according to the 2023 State of Tobacco Control report from the American Lung Association.

The general drop in cigarette smoking among adults should have a positive impact on public health.

Cigarette smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the US. So many people have died from smoking, the CDC finds, that more than 10 times as many US citizens have died prematurely from cigarette smoking than have died in all the wars fought by the US.

Smokers are 90% of the lung cancer cases in the United States, but smoking can also cause someone to have a stroke, coronary heart disease, and COPD, as well as other cancers including bladder, colon, kidney, liver, stomach and other cancers. People who live with smokers also are at a greater risk of death, because of secondhand smoke.

This latest survey does not capture why fewer people smoked cigarettes, but the number has been on the decline since the 1960s, after the US surgeon general released the first report on smoking and health that concluded that smoking causes serious health problems.

Experts credit a variety of efforts for the decline in cigarette smoking – anti-smoking campaigns, programs that educate children about the danger of smoking, laws that severely restrict where people could smoke and where cigarette companies could advertise, as well as better access to smoking cessation programs and higher taxes that make cigarettes expensive.

However, Congress hasn’t raised federal tobacco taxes in 14 years. The federal cigarette tax remains $1.01 per pack, and taxes vary for other tobacco products. No state increased its cigarette taxes in 2022.

The pandemic may also have had an influence. Smokers were much more vulnerable to the severe consequences of Covid-19 and that gave some people the extra motivation they needed to quit – and may have given doctors the extra motivation they needed to help them too, according to Dr. Panagis Galiatsatos, a volunteer medical spokesperson with the American Lung Association. At some level, the pandemic also made the medical establishment easier to access.

“The pandemic, I think, really allowed physicians time they never probably had in the past to conduct these telemedicine visits that were appropriate just for smoking cessation strategies, helping them help patients quit and stay quit,” said Galiatsatos, who is a pulmonary and critical care medicine physician and is director of the Tobacco Treatment Clinic with Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Galiatsatos points to the US Surgeon General report released during the Trump administration, just prior to the start of the pandemic. The report detailed that of the patients they have now that smoke, the few that are left are going to be the most resistant to quitting. Then-Surgeon General Jerome Adams’ report encouraged more doctors to help their patients quit. The report found that 40% of smokers are not routinely told by their doctors to stop.

The rise of e-cigarettes

Still, the culture has changed. Smoking is much less socially acceptable in some cultures in the US.