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Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelensky addressed the UN Security Council on Tuesday, the day after a deadly attack on a shopping mall in central Ukraine, to call for Russia to be expunged as a permanent member of the group.
Zelensky opened the speech by saying that whereas the UN did not yet have a legal definition of the term “terrorist state” agreed on by all UN members, that Russia’s war on Ukraine “demonstrates not only the meaning of the concept, but also the urgent necessity to enshrine it legally at the level of the United Nations, and punish any terrorist state,” he said.
He then went through a list of attacks on Ukraine since last Saturday, including the strike on a residential building in Kyiv, a rocket in the yard of a kindergarten on Sunday, and a missile strike on a shopping mall in Kremenchuk in central Ukraine, the president said. “Those who carried out the strike could not have been unaware it was on a shopping mall,” Zelensky added.
Zelensky continued with a list of additional strikes in Ukraine this week, and named the victims, including children, elderly and women. “I want you to hear the names,” he said.
He then asked the body, “who of you does not agree that this is terrorism? If in any other part of the world, any organization acted just like Russia who is killing Ukrainians, if a country killed any peaceful people, that would definitely be recognized as terrorism. Such an organization would become an enemy for all of humankind.”
“Therefore what is punished at the level of concrete criminals and criminal organizations must not go unchecked at the level of the state,” he added.
Zelensky then called on the UNSC to expel Russia from that body.
“The UN charter confers on the UN Security Council the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Article 6 of chapter 2 of the UN charter clearly states that a member of the UN which has persistently violated the principles contained in the present charter may be expelled from the organization by the General Assembly by the UN Security Council. Although Russia is violating fundamental principles of the UN and the international legal order, it is still not held to account at the global level. It still remains in UN agencies and even enjoys the privileges of the seat it occupies. The seat of the permanent member of the UNSC, which Russia occupies solely due to the short-sightedness of politicians at the end of the Cold War. Russia does not have the right to take part in discussing a voting in regards to the war in Ukraine, which is unprovoked and simply colonialist on the part of Russia. I urge you to deprive the delegation of the terrorist state of its powers at the UN General Assembly. That is possible. That is necessary. That is fair. Russia does not have the right to remain in the UNSC,” Zelensky said.
In Spain to attend this week's NATO summit, President Biden congratulated Finland, Sweden and Turkey for reaching an agreement which will pave the way for the Nordic countries to join the NATO alliance.
Turkey had initially objected to the two nations becoming part of the alliance, over counterterrorism concerns.
On Twitter, Biden said, “Congratulations to Finland, Sweden, and Turkey on signing a trilateral memorandum – a crucial step towards a NATO invite to Finland and Sweden, which will strengthen our Alliance and bolster our collective security – and a great way to begin the Summit.”
Germany and the Netherlands will deliver six additional self-propelled armored howitzers to Ukraine, the defense ministers of both countries said in the Spanish capital of Madrid on Tuesday.
The German Foreign Ministry said each country will provide three of the artillery weapons on top of 12 howitzers the countries have already sent to Ukraine.
“The self-propelled howitzer 2000 is one of the most advanced artillery pieces in the world,” the ministry added.
Ukrainian forces were able to strike an arms depot well within Moscow-controlled territory in the Luhansk region, with Russian-backed separatist forces in Luhansk saying Kyiv used the US-donated HIMARS Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) to do it.
“The first case of the use of the American MLRS M142HIMARS, which was so advertised, was detected in the LPR today [Tuesday],” the spokesman for the People’s Militia of the self-declared Luhansk People’s Republic (LPR), Lieutenant Colonel Andrey Marochko said in an interview with state broadcaster Russia 1.
“At 7:20 a.m., from the direction of the settlement of Artemovsk [the Ukrainian side calls the city Bakhmut], there was as strike on Perevalsk.”
“This is the deep rear,” he added. “I also think this shows a lot right now, about what Ukraine is doing, because, firstly, we confirmed that these systems are in the Donbas.”
Pictures of the aftermath of the strike, posted by Russian affiliated accounts, showed the remains of what looked like a Western-made missile.
Commenting on the reports Ukrainian forces had used the HIMARS to target Russian forces far from the front lines, the head of the Luhansk region military administration, Serhiy Hayday said: “There is good news in this regard, because warehouses and barracks with personnel explode and burn.”
“This may slow down their advance towards Lysychansk,” Hayday added without providing additional details on the strike.
CNN has been unable to independently verify the claims the HIMARS was used to target Russian or Russian-backed forces in the Luhansk region, but Ukrainian and US officials have acknowledged the US-made MLRS has been deployed and used near the front lines.
Turkey confirmed it signed a trilateral memorandum with Finland and Sweden Tuesday supporting their NATO membership bids, agreeing Helsinki and Stockholm will not provide support to the Kurdish People's Protection Units, also known as YPG, which Turkey views as a terrorist organization, according to the Turkish presidency.
Turkey said it extends its full support to Finland and Sweden against threats to their national security.
The Turkish statement said Finland and Sweden also confirmed the separatist militant Kurdistan's Workers Party, also known as PKK, which Turkey, the US and EU consider a terrorist organization, is a "proscribed terrorist organization" and commit to prevent activities" of the PKK and all other terrorist organizations and their extensions"
Turkey added the three countries agreed on not having national arms embargoes between them.
Turkey, Finland and Sweden committed to establishing an intelligence sharing mechanism to scale up counterterrorism operations and to combat organized crime. The countries agreed Finland and Sweden will address Turkey's pending deportation or extradition requests of terror suspects "expeditiously and thoroughly."
Finland and Sweden agreed to investigate and interdict any financing and recruitment activities of the PKK -considered a terrorist organization by Turkey, the US and the EU.
"Turkey confirms its long-standing support for NATO's Open Door policy, and agrees to support at the 2022 Madrid Summit the invitation of Finland and Sweden to become members of NATO," the memorandum signed by Turkey read.
Finland and Sweden are poised to end decades of neutrality by joining NATO, a dramatic evolution in European security and geopolitics sparked by Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
The two Nordic nations had long kept the military alliance at an arm's length, even while eying Russia to their east with caution.
But Moscow's assault on Ukraine has sparked renewed security concern across the region, and the leaders of each country have signaled their desire to join the bloc after more than 75 years of military nonalignment.
Here's what you need to know about how the war in Ukraine caused the shift, and what comes next.
NATO has what it calls an "open door policy" on new members — any European country can request to join, so long as they meet certain criteria and all existing members agree.
A country does not technically "apply" to join; Article 10 of its founding treaty states once a nation has expressed interest, the existing member states "may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty ... to accede."
NATO diplomats told Reuters ratification of new members could take a year, as the legislatures of all 30 current members must approve new applicants.
Both Finland and Sweden already meet many of the requirements for membership, which include having a functioning democratic political system based on a market economy; treating minority populations fairly; committing to resolve conflicts peacefully; the ability and willingness to make a military contribution to NATO operations; and committing to democratic civil-military relations and institutions.
The process was not without hurdles; Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Friday he was not looking at both countries joining NATO "positively," accusing them of housing Kurdish "terrorist organizations." But on Tuesday, he threw his support behind the nations' bids at the NATO summit in Madrid, Spain.
The United States and the United Kingdom have both expressed their support for their membership bid.
What does NATO membership entail?
The reason most countries join NATO is because of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which stipulates all signatories consider an attack on one an attack against all.
Article 5 has been a cornerstone of the alliance since NATO was founded in 1949 as a counterweight to the Soviet Union.
The point of the treaty, and Article 5 specifically, was to deter the Soviets from attacking liberal democracies lacking military strength. Article 5 guarantees the resources of the whole alliance — including the massive US military — can be used to protect any single member nation, such as smaller countries who would be defenseless without their allies. Iceland, for example, has no standing army.
Former Swedish leader Carl Bildt told CNN he doesn't see new big military bases being built in either country should they join NATO. He said joining the alliance would likely mean more joint military training and planning between Finland, Sweden and NATO's 30 current members. Swedish and Finnish forces could also participate in other NATO operations around the globe, such as those in the Baltic States, where several bases have multinational troops.
It's worth noting Russia has lambasted the decision by Finland and Sweden to join NATO. Its deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov said Monday the move would be a "mistake" with "far-reaching consequences," according to state news agency TASS.
Russia currently shares about 755 miles of land border with five NATO members, according to the alliance. Finland's accession would mean a nation with which Russia shares an 830-mile border would become formally militarily aligned with the United States.
The addition of Finland and Sweden would also benefit the alliance, which would frustrate Russia. Both are serious military powers, despite their small populations.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said Monday "Russia has no problems with these states," adding the expansion of NATO "does not pose a direct threat to Russia."
"But the expansion of military infrastructure into this territory will certainly cause our response," he added at the Collective Security Treaty Organization in Moscow. "We will see what it will be based on the threats that will be created for us."
Read the full report here.
CNN's Rob Picheta, Luke McGee, Nic Robertson, Paul LeBlanc, Per Bergfors Nyberg and Niamh Kennedy and Reuters contributed to this report
NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg said he is "confident" Finland and Sweden will be able to successfully join NATO after Turkey signed a trilateral memorandum of understanding with Sweden and Finland Tuesday.
"I'm pleased to announce that we now have an agreement that paves the way for Finland and Sweden to join NATO. Turkey, Finland and Sweden have signed a memorandum that addresses Turkey's concerns, including around arms exports, and the fight against terrorism," Stoltenberg said, speaking to journalists in Madrid following the signing of the memorandum.
On Wednesday, allied leaders will then decide whether to invite Finland and Sweden to join NATO, he said, adding after the decision, a ratification process will need to take place in all NATO capitals.
The NATO chief said following the signing of the trilateral memorandum, however, he was "confident" Sweden and Finland becoming NATO members is "something that will take place."
Stoltenberg said the military alliance's "open door policy" has been an "historic success," after Turkey agreed to support Finland and Sweden’s NATO membership bids.
NATO has what it calls an "open door policy" on new members: Any European country can request to join, so long as they meet certain criteria and all existing members agree.
"In NATO, we have always shown that whatever our differences, we can always sit down, find common ground and resolve any issues. NATO's open door policy has been an historic success," Stoltenberg said, speaking to journalists in Madrid.
"Welcoming Finland and Sweden into the alliance will make them safer, NATO stronger and the Euro Atlantic area more secure. This is vital as we face the biggest security crisis in decades," he added.
British Prime Minister Boris Johnson Tuesday welcomed Turkey's decision to support Finland and Sweden’s NATO membership bids, calling it "fantastic news."
"Fantastic news as we kick off the NATO Summit. Sweden and Finland's membership will make our brilliant alliance stronger and safer," Johnson wrote on Twitter.
The situation in the eastern Ukrainian city of Lysychansk is “very difficult” as it suffers increased bombardments from Russia forces trying to storm the population center.
“The situation [in and] around Lysychansk is now very difficult. There is no central water supply, no gas, no electricity,” the head of the Luhansk regional military administration Serhiy Hayday said on Tuesday. “The combat action constantly goes on.”
Hayday said Russian forces in the area are putting all their efforts into storming the city.
“This whole Russian horde is aimed at storming Lysychansk,” Hayday said, accusing Russia of deliberately targeting civilian infrastructure. “Schools, kindergartens, cultural facilities, hospitals, State Emergency Service bases where people gather for evacuation, humanitarian headquarters, they completely destroy everything. They have a scorched-earth policy.”
Hayday also said Russian forces have suffered significant losses and have had to rely on older equipment to continue their assault.
“Today we already see that they use old weapons. That is, not only modern equipment like the T-80, but already the T-64 and even the T-62. These are already completely outdated models of tanks,” he said. “They use everything that's possible and impossible.”