How the districts voted in 2020, by presidential vote margin in percentage points
After the 2020 census, states have redrawn their congressional district lines so that overall, there are far fewer competitive districts between parties overall. There are now just 34 competitive districts — those that either President Joe Biden or former President Donald Trump won in 2020 by 5 percentage points or less — 17 fewer than when the previous maps were last used in 2020. Nine Republican districts and eight Democratic districts based on 2020 presidential performance replace those 17. Texas played a big part in the decline of competitive districts. Previously, Texas had 11 competitive districts, but Republicans redrew the map so that just one remains.
Click or tap on any state to take a closer look at how each one has redrawn their map:
Republicans continue to benefit from a clear advantage in drawing new district lines. The party has had the final word on redistricting in 177 congressional districts, while Democrats have drawn the boundaries for 49 districts.
“Republicans had focused on winning state legislative races in 2010, so that they could draw districts that would benefit them throughout the decade. And so they could be in charge of drawing districts in 2020,” said Doug Spencer, a University of Colorado law professor and the interim manager of All About Redistricting, a website hosted by the Loyola Marymount University Law School that explains the redistricting process. “This was a deliberate, multi-decade strategy. And it worked.”
Republicans continue their state advantage in redrawing congressional districts
The number of districts in which Republicans controlled the redistricting process has steadily risen over the past two cycles, even as more states have adopted independent commissions. Both parties were responsible for 90 districts after the 2010 census but have only drawn Maine's two districts this time.
Who controlled the redistricting process, by number of districts
Note: Data examines which party or entity was responsible for drawing the final congressional district maps in each cycle. Total number of districts only add up to 429; the remaining six districts are statewide at-large districts.
The GOP advantage over Democrats has endured even as more states have adopted independent redistricting commissions. Many of the states with redistricting commissions are governed by Democrats or both parties. Just two of the nine states where commissions drew the lines this cycle are controlled by Republicans: Idaho and Montana, which together equal only four congressional districts. Overall, redistricting commissions controlled the map drawing process for 110 districts nationwide, with California’s 52 districts representing nearly half of those.
When the party or parties in charge of the process can’t come to an agreement, or the adopted maps create legal issues, frequently state or federal courts step in instead. Courts have decided the lines in more districts than Democratic state governments. In this cycle, courts have decided the lines for 91 districts — 26 from the state of New York alone.
Both parties had control of the process for 90 districts in 2000. But this time, more than 20 years later, Maine’s two districts were the only two redrawn under both parties’ control.
Correction: This page has been corrected to reflect the most recent version of New York's map and data. A previous version miscategorized NY-11, which is a Republican district according to its 2020 presidential performance.