E-scooters have become incredibly popular in recent years, but restrictions on their use are increasing.
CNN  — 

Brussels. San Diego. Bogotá. Walk around any major tourist destination these days, and you’ll see them. Electric scooters, gliding silently around city center streets, zipping through traffic signals, or abandoned – lying on the street, propped up against trees or, in some cases, dumped in rivers.

Scooter-sharing systems similar to city bike schemes have sprung up in more than 100 cities worldwide as their popularity has grown.

But this tiny-wheeled transport revolution could be about to end as quickly as it began.

While they’ve attracted admirers for their convenience and fun, they’ve also incurred the wrath of those annoyed at having to leap out of people riding across sidewalks or step over scooters lying in their path. There are also mounting safety concerns and questions about environmental claims made about using them.

This month, Singapore announced a trial prohibition of e-scooters on sidewalks that could become an all-out ban next year. It took the decision, says Lam Pin Min, senior minister of state for transport, following the death of a cyclist who collided with an e-scooter. Local news reports said one Singapore hospital had reported six deaths of scooter riders in 2019.

Meanwhile in France, a sidewalk scooter ban was enforced in September, three months after a rider was hit by a truck and killed.

In the UK, scooters are also banned from all public roads, sidewalks and cycle lanes – although that hasn’t stopped them being a regular presence on all three. The UK now insists that retailers including Amazon put safety warnings on packaging, a measure introduced in October, after a YouTube star, Emily Hartridge, was killed riding an e-scooter in London in July.

‘Disproportionately affecting’ those with disabilities

The scooter revolution has been billed as a green way to get around big cities, with rental apps acting in the same way as city bike schemes. You pick them up, pay by the minute and drop them off at your destination.

Where some city bikes often have docking stations – to which the bikes must be returned for the fees to stop – scooters can be picked up or dropped off anywhere.

And while that may be handy – apps like Lime, Bird and countless local spinoffs have live maps showing users where the nearest scooters are – it’s causing issues for other road users.

Simon Minty, a disability and diversity consultant who presents the Ouch disability podcast for the BBC, was in Brussels this summer when he came across abandoned scooters blocking the sidewalks.

“I predict these two wheeled electric scooters will become very annoying,” he tweeted. “They seem to be abandoned, in the middle of the pavement, everywhere I go. I saw three from the station to my hotel.”

Minty says that a friend who’d been to Paris said the situation in the French capital before the September ban was “exactly the same.”

People with disabilities are “disproportionately affected,” he says. “You’re going to hit these, and you’ll be absolutely stuffed.”

Environmentally friendly – if you’re replacing a car

Scooters can be ditched by users wherever they like

Proponents of scooters say that they’re environmentally friendly. “Cruise past traffic and cut back on CO2 emissions,” trumpets Bird’s website.

But an August 2019 paper by researchers from North Carolina State University found that they may not be as green as you’d think.

In fact, traveling by scooter has a higher carbon footprint than going by bus or moped – as well as on a bike or on foot, according to Jeremiah Johnson, an associate professor at NCSU who led the research published in the Environmental Research Letters journal.

Instead of looking at scooter carbon footprint per journey, Johnson and his team looked at the entire lifecycle of scooters – crucial because they are notoriously short-lived, he says, with customers mistreating them.

The materials used to make the scooters – an aluminum frame, lithium battery and rubber wheels – all result in an environmental burden, he says. As does the manufacturing.

“They have a really short lifetime, especially in this application of them,” he tells CNN. “Aluminum doesn’t provide much service. They only last several months.”

What’s more, because users can ditch them wherever they like, rental apps pay third parties to round up the scooters every night, grouping them more sensibly for the morning’s customers, he says.

“They receive compensation per scooter, so there’ll be folks doing this as a side hustle, students trying to make money – it’s a prime source of income,” he says.

“It’s very competitive and done in a very short window, and they’re largely driving their personal cars to pick them up. That’s a pretty big share of the impact.”

Some e-scooters get thrown in rivers, canals or the sea.

Lime scooters are taken to warehouses each night by a local operations team, said a spokesperson. Senior director at Bird, Caroline Hazlehurst, said that Bird’s scooters are collected “regularly, but not always every day… How we collect them changes from country to country.”

But she added: “Every town and city throughout the world suffers from the same two problems: too many cars creating congestion which in turn leads to poor air quality.”

Of course, they also need to be charged overnight. And the final thing to take into account is what method of transport they’re replacing.

If you’re scootering to work instead of driving yourself solo, the scooter is a “clear environmental win,” says NCSU’s Johnson. But, he says, many people surveyed in Raleigh, where the university is based, said that pre-scooter, they’d cycle or walk to work.

While many people in the US drive to work – and Johnson is clear that “in moving away from car ownership it’s almost certainly a win for environmental performance” – in European cities, where public transport is the norm, using a scooter is therefore relatively less green, he says.

The upshot?

“Scooters look innocuous but people tend not to think about the unseen cost,” Johnson says.

Hazlehurst says that Bird has changed its scooters from “consumer grade” to a “vastly different” and “rugged” version since they launched. Its “Bird One” model now has a lifetime of around 18 months, she said, while its latest model Bird Two can last two years.

Lime says that its third generation model is “demonstrating a lifespan of more than 12 months.” Its spokesperson says that Johnson’s study “raises important issues” but “doesn’t capture Lime’s approach today.”

“We’ve already taken steps to reduce our environmental impact, including streamlining our charging operations, powering our scooters with 100% renewable energy, offsetting the emissions from fleet vehicles, and establishing a robust repair and reuse program to extend the life cycle of our products,” the spokesperson said.

Singapore has announced a scooter sidewalk ban

Rules on e-scooters vary around the world. In the UK, riding one on a road can net users six penalty points on their driving license. Riding them on the sidewalk, cyclepath or footpath is subject to a £300 ($385) fine.

A report by the UK House of Commons Library in August suggested that things could change in the future, but a spokesperson for the Department for Transport declined to comment, citing rules around the upcoming UK election.

In Paris, while you can ride them on the road, using them on the sidewalk can incur a €135 fine, while dumping them in a doorway, on a crosswalk or in another antisocial place incurs a €35 fine.

“Pavements are only for pedestrians,” mayor Anne Hidalgo tweeted in March this year.

Germany approved e-scooter use this year, though not on sidewalks unless in “exceptional” circumstances. Bird’s Caroline Hazlehurst says that “especially in Europe, we’re seeing cities and countries change laws to specifically allow scooters to operate.”

In Sweden, where scooters are classified as bicycles and allowed on sidewalks or footpaths, 241 accidents have been registered this year alone including one death. Tomas Eneroth, the Swedish minister for infrastructure, has called the situation “a mess.”

The law in Spain was changed this year. E-scooters can no longer be used on sidewalks. Additionally, they are banned in Barcelona. Madrid authorities in October refused to grant licenses to ride-sharing companies Bird, Lime and Voi.

In the United States, over 100 cities have e-scooters, and Americans took 38.5 million trips on them, according to the National Association of City Transportation Officials.

Portland, Oregon, is midway through a year-long trial, following a four-month pilot in 2018.

The 2018 program “raised concerns about people riding e-scooters on sidewalks, in violation of state traffic laws, creating conflict with people walking and people with disabilities,” says a statement from the Portland Bureau of Transportation.

The PBOT will “evaluate the program” following the pilot.

It used to be illegal to use the scooters in New York City, but a law change in summer 2019 means that you can use your own, if you have one – although ride-sharing rentals are still banned.

And in LA, authorities this month suspended Uber’s permit to rent e-scooters because of its failure to share ride-tracking data with the Los Angeles Department of Transportation. Seven other companies are licensed to rent scooters in LA though.

And in San Francisco, the scooter companies were dubbed “spoiled brats” by Aaron Peskin, one of the legislators who voted to clamp down on the companies when they were introduced in 2018.

In April 2019, however, the city granted permits to four companies: Jump, Lime, Spin, and Scoot, the last of which had previously been operating.

San Diego struggles to cope

Sidewalks are being crowded with the scooters, say critics

San Diego has been at the forefront of scooter wars since the machines arrived in February 2018. The city is awash with more than 19,000 scooters, according to the San Diego Union-Tribune – with almost 15,000 complaints about them to the city authorities over the summer, 3,700 scooters impounded for parking violations, and almost 500 riders receiving traffic tickets.

Since April, the city has instated “corrals” – designated parking spots by the roadside for scooters, outlined with paint on the road. Riders can be fined for dumping a scooter on the street in a block that has a corral.

In April, the council introduced new restrictions on scooters, including speed limits in pedestrian-heavy places like Balboa Park, and a parking ban in places with speed limits below 8 mph, including beachfront boardwalks and in Little Italy.

Council member Barbara Bry, a vocal critic of the scooters, called for a moratorium in July, although it has not been approved. In December, the council will debate banning scooters on the beach boardwalks entirely.

“Throughout the city, I continue to see riders using the sidewalk, multiple riders on one scooter, and scooters strewn about the sidewalks, rather than in designated corrals,” she tells CNN.

“San Diego was slow to respond when scooters started showing up on our streets. While it has been inactive, other cities like Portland and Santa Monica have issued requests for proposals that include a fee structure, operational standards, data sharing and insurance requirements.”

She said the City has “let a technology overtake us rather than assist and empower our communities with safe and sustainable micro-mobility options,” and said that “all of downtown is experiencing cluttered sidewalks.” <